Kinetic physics effects can be incorporated into global magnetohydrodynamics simulations. An example where MHD and kinetic effects show collective important is in plasmoid formation due to a "tearing instability" in a current sheet. The image shows such a process in a resistive MHD simulation: Jz on the top panel, and B^2-E^2 on the bottom panel. Plasmoid-unstable current sheets can be found in black hole accretion disks, black hole jets, and neutron star magnetospheres.
Methods: GRRMHD code BHAC